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Kyoto GHG Periodic Tables Reveal Hidden Features of the Carbon Cycle
The Carbon Codex(TM) is a series of graphical periodic tables for the Kyoto Greenhouse Gases that describes the relevant chemical species, their planetary presence, and mechanisms to measure, verify and account for their emissions status (e.g., increase or decrease in atmospheric composition). The capability to monitor, verify and account (MVA) for carbon emissions across the landscape from local-to-global project scales provides quantitative data for management and mitigation of emissions. Quantification of the emissions provides applications to GHG financial instruments that go beyond estimation, the current approach in GHG credit creation, to credible and verified credits.
PEMs Veritas Financial Instruments(TM) (VFI)
PEM Inc., has developed unique patent pending financial instruments that match "biology" to monetization of the GHG's in a format that is accessible to and easily understood by investors. PEM's Veritas Financial Instruments(TM) (VFI's) offers new approaches to manage the risk of investing in KGHG credits. PEM's VFI's are universally applicable to KGHG mitigation projects anywhere on the planet ranging from small scale farm plots to vast areas of forests and open ocean. PEM will be demonstrating the VFI approach through an SEC Regulation A offering in 2014, pending SEC approval.
The first Carbon Codex(TM) periodic table in the series, "Three C's of the Carbon Cycle" (3C's) assists in understanding the cycling of carbon dioxide (CO2), the primary GHG. The left column of the periodic table below shows data for the three species of carbon for which we can apply MVA approaches--carbon 12 (12C), carbon 13 (13C) and carbon 14 (14C) and for which VFI's can be based upon. The middle column provides current science data for the global presence of the 3C's and their cycling. The right column provides information on the relative number of measurements made for each of the 3C's. Note that measurement for the rare forms of carbon (e.g., 13C and 14C) are vastly restricted in total measurements relative to 12C yet the rare forms of carbon can be directly linked to the quantification of carbon cycling, carbon emissions and carbon management. PEM Inc. is integrating new instrumentation capable of measuring the rare forms of carbon in real time and in the free atmosphere with proprietary software to yield new and credible KGHG financial instruments.
PEM Inc. will launch the Veritas Financial Instrument(TM) in 2014 with selected projects.
CARBON CODEX(TM) Periodic Table 1: TheThree C'S of the Carbon Cycle(TM)
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Periodic Table (www.chemnetbase.com)
Chart of the Nuclides (www.nndc.bnl.gov/chart/)
CO2 concentration and 13C values (www.esrl.noaa.gov)
All other sotopic values (Reddy et al., 2008; Widory 2006; O'Leary 1988; Svetlik 2009; Levin 2003)
Isotopic ratio definitions:
d13C = [(13C/12C) sample/(13C/12C) std – 1] x 1000 (per mil, std is PDB)
D14C = [(14C/12C) sample/(14C/12C) std – 1] x 1000 (per mil, std is NBS Oxalic Acid 1)